Air and Water Infiltration
The amount of air and water that passes between a window sash and frame. In windows it is measured in terms of cubic feet of air per minute, per square foot of area. The lower the number, the less air the window lets pass through.
Small honeycomb spaces within the sash and frame which help to insulate and strengthen the window.
An odourless, colourless, tasteless, non-toxic gas, six times denser than air. It is used to replace air between the glass panes to reduce thermal transfer.
The center member of a double door, which is attached to the fixed or inactive door panel.
A top-hinged window that can be cranked open from the bottom, swinging outward for ventilation. The glass faces downward when the window is fully opened. Awnings are great for bathrooms and other spaces that require privacy. They can be opened for ventilation even when it is raining (due to the angle of the window).
Large windows that come in angled sections; the middle pane is fixed, while some models feature outer panes that open up for air flow. Bay windows are often found in living areas; they are inviting and can significantly increase the amount of light that a room receives. These windows are quite large and often feature inner ledges that can be decorated.
A combination of four or more windows that project out from the home, joined at a 10-degree angle.
An exterior (milled) trim piece to cover the gap between the window / door frame and masonry in a masonry (or other) opening. In addition to serving as an anchor point for installation of the unit, brick mould provides a boundary for brick or other siding material on the face of the building and attachment of hardware (sometimes called Shake mould).
Glass tinted with a light bronze colouring used to reduce the amount of light transmitted through the pane.
A rubber material that seals the glass to the spacer, creating an airtight and water-tight IG unit. Butyl has the lowest gas permeability of all rubbers.
Grooved, usually H-shaped, rod of cast lead used, as in stained glass, to hold the panes or pieces of glass together.
Cosmetic covering, usually found on the exterior of the window or door to achieve aesthetic sight lines or to integrate the window or door system into the building surface or weatherproofing system. Also called cladding.
These windows open outward via a hinge mechanism. They can open on the left or right side, and are perfect for spaces that need adequate ventilation. Casement windows are energy-efficient and are effective at minimizing noise. They are often installed in hard to reach spaces, given the ease of which they can be opened by the crank handle.
To seal cracks and joints around window and door frames to prevent air and air infiltration.
A mastic compound for filling joints and sealing cracks to prevent air and water infiltration, commonly made of silicone, bituminous, acrylic, or rubber-based material.
Center of Glass U-values and R-values
The U-values and R-values measured from the center of the glass to 2-1/2″ from the frame.
Any material locked to the outside faces of doors and windows (exterior skin) to provide a durable, low-maintenance exterior surface.
Transmission of energy (heat and cold) through a solid material by direct contact.
Heat transfer by currents that flow from a warm surface to a colder one.
The locking mechanism that is installed on entry doors. It features a throw (bolt) that locks into place within the frame. Deadbolts provide greater security than standard door locks, as they are very difficult to open via forced entry.
A drying agent (similar to silica gel) used in insulating glass to absorb water vapour in order to prevent fogging.
A window with a number of smaller panes of glass separated and held in place by muntins.
The part of a door frame which surrounds and contacts the edges of the stiles and top rail of a door; jambs may be classified as (1) “head” or “side” jambs and (2) “plain” or “rabbeted”.
A door without lites or sweep installed.
Weather-stripping system that is installed at the bottom of the door; the sweep prevents air and water from coming inside.
A space which protrudes from the roof of a house, usually including one or more windows.
Double Glazed Units
Units consisting of two lites of glass and one air space in between.
In general, two glasses separated by an air space within an opening to improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound transmission. In factory-made double glazing units, the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space is sealed airtight, eliminating possible condensation and providing superior insulating properties.
Double Hung Window
A window that opens on the top and bottom. These windows are best suited in rooms where you want to maintain privacy while letting light and airflow in. You can open the bottom sash when you need to cool a space and the top when you want to let vent warm air out.
An alternative method of placing glass in a door or window. No glazing mastic is used. Dry glazing is recommended whenever reflective coatings are glazed to the first surface.
A material that has two or more levels of flexibility. An example is the weather stripping used between the frame and sash of a casement window.
Easy Clean Glass
A specialty option that can be applied to the glaze; it refers to the coating that helps prevent moisture and grime buildup. Rain that comes into contact with these windows will be sheeted off; this option is recommended for high up or hard to reach units.
Literally, an exit (a means of exit). Actual opening size determined by local building codes.
The code that requires a minimum opening of a window for persons to exit or for firefighters to enter.
A window with minimum clear opening size as required by the local building code, to allow occupants to escape through the window in case of a fire.
A type of deadbolt that features an automatic locking system. Electronic models come equipped with keypads that can store a number of code combinations for user convenience. They can be programmed to automatically lock when you leave your home, which is a key benefit. They feature all the same hardware as traditional deadbolts; the throw is released electronically, although it can be manually turned as well.
To emit is to give out, to discharge.
In the case of glass, essentially, to reradiate absorbed energy (heat). Emittance is the ratio of the total radiant energy emitted by a given surface to that emitted by an ideal black body at the same temperature.
End Vent Slider
A window that features a fixed center sash with two sliding outer sashes. The sliding panes can be tilted inward for cleaning purposes; these windows work great for ventilating spaces. They are best suited where outside space would be compromised by a swinging window.
ENERGY STAR® is an independent U.S. government program establishing a standard set of guidelines to recognize the energy efficiency of various products. ENERGY STAR guidelines are used in conjunction with a variety of building materials, including windows and patio doors. Over the past ten years, ENERGY STAR guidelines have helped double the efficiency of the windows they endorse. Products that bear the ENERGY STAR symbol offer superior quality and energy-efficient usage. They meet the standards set forth by the national organization.
A door on the front entrance of a structure; also known as a “front” or “main” entrance door; may be single or in pairs.
Exact Window Size
The dimensions of a window or door unit measured along the outside of the frame.
The removable glazing bead that holds the glass or panel in place when it is on the exterior side of the light or panel, in contrast to an interior stop located on the interior side of the glass.
The process of shaping aluminum or vinyl by forcing it through a die to produce continuous strips of material formed to a specific shape or profile. The material is forced through a die which has been cut to match the desired profile. As the material is extruded through the die, it is cut to the desired length and allowed to cool. This process is very common in creating frame and sash materials, as well as glass insulating spacers and glazing sealers.
Failed IG Unit
An insulated glass unit failure exhibits permanent material obstruction of vision through the unit due to the accumulation of dust, moisture or film on the internal surface of the glass. Surface numbers two and three in double-glazed units are the affected surfaces.
An architectural term referring to the arrangement of windows in a wall. From the Latin word, “fenestra,” meaning window.
These doors are very durable and are a recommended choice for most households. They have the beauty of hardwood, but are not subject to dents, cracks or splitting. The paneling designs on fiberglass doors can be custom-tailored for a unique finish.
Fire Rated Doors
A door which has been constructed in such a manner that when installed in an assembly and tested will pass ASTM E-152 “Fire Test Of Door Assemblies,” and can be rated as resisting fire for 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes (C), 1 hour (B), or 1-1/2 hours (B). The door must be tested and carry an identifying label from a qualified testing and inspection agency.
Fixed Window (Picture Window) – Windows that do not open; they feature a thinner frame and larger glass pane for greater viewing space. Picture windows can be installed anywhere; they provide maximum energy-efficiency due to the lack of an opening system, and they are a great choice when you need to brighten a dark or small space.
The designation given to units that flank a center picture unit in a double or triple combination window.
Sheet material that protects and bridges the joint between the window or door frame members and the adjacent construction for the purpose of preventing water penetration by draining water away from the window or door to the exterior.
All types of glass (rolled, float, plate, etc.) produced in a flat form, regardless of the method of production.
Glass formed by a process of floating the material on a bed of molten metal. It produces a high-optical-quality glass with parallel surfaces, without polishing and grinding.
The enclosure in which the window sash or door panels are mounted. Refers to the part the sash fits into (head, jambs and sill).
Doors that open outward from one another; consist of two pieces that lock together when closed and swing out on a hinge. French doors are great for letting in light and airflow.
A screen which covers the entire opening of a window.
The process of heating mitered corners to 2008°F and bringing the heated corners into contact until they fuse together into a single piece of vinyl.
Gas Filled Units
Insulating glass units with a gas other than air (usually an inert gas such as argon) in the airspace between the panes. This is done to decrease the unit's thermal conductivity (U-value) and increase the unit's sound insulating value.
Refers to the type of gas that is present between the panes of glass. Argon and Krypton fillings are often used, as they work to slow down the heat transfer inside the glaze. This increases the energy-efficiency of the window better than windows that contain air.
A pliable, flexible continuous strip of material used to affect a watertight seal between the sash and the frame of roof windows much like the seal around a refrigerator door.
Specially designed windows classified as either straight line geometries such as rectangles, triangles, trapezoid, octagons, pentagons, etc., or radius geometries which include half-rounds, quarter-rounds, full-rounds, sectors, ellipses, eyebrows, etc.
The pane that sits inside the frame.
The process of sealing the glass to the sash.
This can refer to the number of panes that are present in the window. You can choose from double or triple glazed options. The latter is recommended for very cold climates, but most homes will be suited for double glazed units.
The part of the sash or door panel which holds the glass in place.
A window that opens horizontally; the panels slides left and right on a built in track. Gliding windows are great space-savers and can be opened and closed with ease. They are recommended for use as an emergency escape window, due to the speed at which they can be opened.
Decorative horizontal or vertical bars installed between the glass panes to create the appearance of the sash being dividing into smaller lites of glass. These are the bars that separate the glass into individual panes; the crisscrossing designs that many windows have.
The horizontal top portion of a window or door frame.
An individual U-channel installation accessory that may be fitted to the head of a replacement window to accommodate differences between rough opening and window heights.
A horizontal framing member placed over the rough opening of a window to prevent the weight of the wall or roof from resting on the window frame.
A movable joint enabling a window or door to swing open.
The area cut away to accept the hinge leaf for mounting on the door frame or door edge.
A window with movable panes that slide horizontally.
Leakage of air and water into or outside the house, through cracks around the sash or the window frame.
A design feature which enables sashes to engage one another when closed.
Grids mounted between the two panes of glass of an insulated glass unit.
The vertical sections located on both sides of the frame.
Flat parts made of vinyl, wood or other materials which are attached to the inside edges of a window jamb to extend it in width to adapt to a thicker wall.
Not assembled; parts for a window (or door) frame pre-manufactured for assembly at a later date on the job-site.
An inert, odourless, colorless, tasteless, non-toxic gas which is about 12 times more dense than air. It is used to replace air between the glass panes to reduce temperature transfer and deter convection. Used when a higher performance is desired than that produced with argon gas.
A handhold for raising and lowering the sash. Handle implies that the handhold is not continuous across the sash.
A handhold for raising and lowering the sash. Rail implies that the handhold is continuous across the sash.
A dimension expressing length (in feet) only. For example, the width of a unit (in inches) plus the height (in inches) x 2 divided by 12 = the perimeter measurement of the unit in lineal feet.
A horizontal member above a window or door opening that supports the structure above.
A unit of glass in a window or door.
Low E (Emissivity) Glass
Glass with a transparent metallic oxide coating applied onto or into a glass surface. The coating allows short-wave energy to pass through but reflects long-wave infrared energy which improves the U-value. Glass that has a thin layer of metal applied to it during the manufacturing process. This metal works to radiate heat and harmful UV rays away from the surface. The “E” stands for emissivity; Low-E glass comes in both soft coat and hard coat types. Soft coat units radiate better, as they consist of small metallic particles. Hard coats have a thin metal coating welded onto the pane.
The space in a masonry wall left open for windows or doors.
Mechanically Fastened Frame
Refers to window and door frames fastened with screws.
The horizontal sections of a pair of sashes that meet when the sashes are closed.
Fabric made of fiberglass used in the making of screens.
A vertical or horizontal connecting unit between two or more windows.
A term used for locking hardware that engages a window sash to the frame at multiple locations with a single throw of an operator.
Applies to any short or light bar, either vertical or horizontal, used to separate glass in a sash into multiple lites. Also called a windowpane divider or a grill.
A hardware which, when extended, restricts the sash opening to a predetermined dimension.
A window that can be operated for ventilation.
In a two panel window or door the panel that swings or slides open.
Crank-operated device for opening and closing casement windows.
A major component of a sliding glass door, consisting of a lite of glass in a frame installed within the main (or outer) frame of the door. A panel may be sliding or fixed.
A glass door that slides open and close on adjustable tandem rollers. Available in 2, 3 and 4 section configurations.
A window that does not open (no moveable sash).
A metal post attached to a moving sash and seated in a balance shoe that allows the window sash to tilt.
These doors feature special glass designs that prevent people from looking through them. They work great as entry doors, as the bevel designs are attractive and functional.
A handhold for sliding the sash back and forth. Handle implies that the handhold is not continuous across the sash.
A handhold for sliding the sash back and forth. Rail implies that the handhold is continuous across the sash.
An extruded or molded plastic material used for window framing.
The resistance that a material has to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the resistance. The heat loss by windows is expressed with U-values, or U-factors. U-values are the mathematical inverse of R-values. So an R-value of 2 equals a U-value of 1/2, or 0.5. Unlike R-values, lower U-value indicates higher insulating value.
Wave energy transmitted directly from one object to another through the atmosphere or through transparent or translucent materials. The energy radiated is either transmitted, absorbed, reflected or a combination of all three.
Relative Humidity Condensation Point
The relative humidity level at which visible water vapour or other liquid vapour begins to form on a cold surface. If the temperature changes but no water vapour is added or taken away, then the relative humidity will also change and will increase as the temperature falls. The relative humidity will continue to rise with falling temperature until the dew-point is reached that is, the temperature at which the relative humidity becomes 100 percent.
A window that is designed for and subsequently installed after the removal of all or part of a previously-installed window.
Adding or replacing items not provided at the time of original construction. Typical retrofit products are replacement doors and windows, insulation, storm windows, caulking, weather-stripping, vents, and landscaping.
That part of the edge of a door or window jamb not covered by the casing.
Roll-formed Screen Frame
A method of fabrication in which material (vinyl) is placed on a machine where the material is formed into shape using differently shaped rollers and pressure.
The framed opening in a wall into which a window or door unit is to be installed.
Compressed air forces an abrasive material (resembling sand) through a nozzle onto the surface of the glass. This process removes the surface of the glass, which gives the sandblasted area a frosted look.
The components that hold the window glass in place inside the frame.
A handle for raising the lower sash.
A molding that covers the joint between window sash and the jamb.
Woven mesh of metal, plastic, or fiberglass stretched over a window opening to permit air to pass through, but not insects.
A compressible plastic material used to seal any opening or junction of two parts, such as between the glass and its sash, commonly made of silicone, butyl tape or polysulfide.
Wood wedges (often wood shingles) used to secure the window or door unit in the rough or masonry opening in a square, level and plumb position during and after installation.
A tall, narrow, fixed or operating sash on either or both sides of a door to light an entryway or vestibule.
The horizontal section located at the bottom of the frame.
Simulated Divided Lite
A method of constructing windows in which muntins are affixed to the inside and outside of a panel of insulating glass to simulate the look of true divided lite.
A window in which one sash slides vertically and the other sash is fixed. Generally, the bottom sash is the operable one.
This is a standard door; slab doors can be equipped with textures or left as a single surface; you can also choose to have glass inserts installed (for certain interior doors)
The sill of the window that has a downward slope to the outside, to assist in excessive rainwater runoff.
Solar Heat Gain
The percentage of heat gained from both direct sunlight and absorbed heat. The smaller the number, the greater the ability to reduce solar heat gain.
A strip of material placed between two pieces of glass in order to maintain a uniform width between the two pieces and prevent sealant distortion.
A unit of measure for designating an area of one foot by one foot. Derived from width (in inches) x height (in inches) divided by 144 = area in square feet.
Attack on the glass surface by water or other solutions.
The vertical edges of a door window or screen. The bottom part of the frame; refers to the part the door slides against.
A trim member attached to the window frame to stop the sash of a projecting window when closed to prevent it from swinging through the opening. It also covers the perimeter crack between the sash and the window frame in double hung and sliding windows and prevents the sash from coming out of the frame. Stops used at the top or bottom of the balance channel prevent the sash in hung windows from hitting when opened.
Vertical wood framing members that form a frame wall. In normal construction these are eight foot-long 2″ x 4″s.
Glass with a surface compression of not less than 10,000 psi, or an edge compression of not less than 9,700 psi. Should the glass break, it falls out of the frame and is shattered into small pebble like harmless pieces without sharp edges. This is by design and is proof of a well tempered product, not of a defective product.
The addition of a thermal insulating material between two thermally conductive materials.
A change in dimension of a material as a result of a temperature change.
A mechanism that unlocks the sash and allows it to tilt in for cleaning.
A sash that can be tilted to the interior for cleaning.
Glass with a material added to give the glass a light and/or heat reducing capability and colour.
Total Unit U-Values and R-Values
The heat loss by windows is expressed with U-values, or U-factors. U-values are the mathematical inverse of R-values. So an R-value of 2 equals a U-value of 1/2, or 0.5. Unlike R-values, lower U-value indicates higher insulating value.
A small window that fits over the top of a door or window, primarily for additional light and aesthetic value.
A large fixed window semi-circular or an artistic variation of that shape mounted above a door or a group of windows primarily for additional light and aesthetic value.
True Divided Lite
A term commonly used to describe the arrangement of grills in a single sealed unit giving the effect of divided lites (individual panes of glass in a single unit).
Type of radiation with wavelengths shorter than those of visible light and longer than those of X-rays. Causes sunburn, fading and breakdown of fabric, wood, furniture and other exposed surfaces.
A window or door unit that opens or operates.
Vinyl is a generic term for modified PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride).
A door or frame made of wood with an exterior skin of vinyl.
A window whose frame and sashes are made from vinyl.
Warm Edge Spacer
Use of a non-conductive edge spacer in insulating glass units instead of the conventional aluminum (conductive) edge spacer. “Warm Edge” spacers may be made of butyl, silicone foam or other non-metallic materials and sealants.
Material used to form a weather-resistant seal around operable sash to prevent air and water infiltration. These are foam compression pieces that are installed on both sides of the door inside the frame; this is used to seal air gaps and maximize energy-efficiency.
A weep hole that is covered with a vinyl flap that allows water to escape, while keeping insects out.
Small openings in the window or door sill designed to allow water to escape.
Slots or holes in the sill (bottom) member of the window and door frame that provides an outdoor release of infiltrated rainwater.
A silicone-based substance used to secure and seal the glass to the sash.
A glazed opening in an external wall of a building; an entire unit consisting of a frame sash and glazing, and any operable elements.
The fixed frame of a window which holds the sash as well as the operating hardware for the window.
Various devices and mechanisms for the window including cords, chains, fasteners and locks, hinges and pivots, lifts and pulls, pulleys, sash weights, sash balances etc.
Size of the actual window frame always expressed as width first then height.
The description of the way a window operates; example hung, sliders, casements etc.